2014Advanced TechnologyBiotechnology and Medical Technology
Robert Samuel Langer photo

Robert Samuel Langer

  • U.S.A. / August 29, 1948
  • Biomedical Engineer
  • Institute Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Creation of Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery System Technologies

Dr. Langer founded the tissue engineering which is indispensable for the implementation of regenerative medicine, by applying biodegradable polymer technologies to construct “scaffolds” for cells, thereby succeeding in the regeneration of various organs. He has also developed drug delivery system technologies for the controlled release of proteins, nucleic acids, and other macromolecular drugs, and has actively promoted their practical applications. Dr. Langer is a pioneer to take the lead in the interdisciplinary field of medicine and engineering.

Profile

Brief Biography

1948
Born in Albany, New York, U.S.A.
1974
Sc.D. in Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
1974
Research Associate, Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Harvard Medical School (HMS)
1977
Assistant Professor (Visiting), Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, MIT
1978
Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, MIT
1981
Associate Professor, Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences; Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences Technology (HST), MIT
1985
Professor, Department of Applied Biological Sciences; HST, MIT
1988
Kenneth J. Germeshausen Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering; HST, MIT
1999
Senior Lecturer, Children’s Hospital Medical Center, HMS
2005
Institute Professor, MIT
2009
David H. Koch Institute Professor, MIT

Selected Awards and Honors

1996
Canada Gairdner International Award
2002
Charles Stark Draper Award
2005
Albany Medical Center Prize in Medicine and Biomedical Research
2006
National Medal of Science
2008
Millennium Technology Prize
2011
National Medal of Technology and Innovation
2013
Wolf Prize in Chemistry
2014
Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences
Members
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Engineering, National Academy of Inventors, National Academy of Sciences

Selected Publications

1976

Polymers for the Sustained Release of Proteins and Other Macromolecules (R. Langer and J. Folkman), Nature 263: 797-800, 1976.

1993

Neocartilage Formation in vitro and in vivo Using Cells Cultured on Synthetic Biodegradable Polymers (L. E. Freed et al.), J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 27: 11-23, 1993.

1993

Tissue Engineering (R. Langer and J. P. Vacanti), Science 260: 920-926, 1993.

1994

Biodegradable Long-Circulating Polymeric Nanospheres (R. Gref et al.), Science 263: 1600-1603, 1994.

1998

Drug Delivery and Targeting, Nature 392: 5-10, 1998.

Citation

Creation of Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery System Technologies

Dr. Robert Samuel Langer is a world-renowned pioneer in a field that fuses the disciplines of engineering, medicine, and pharmacology. His accomplishments in basic research alone are outstanding. Additionally, he has also applied these research results to medical care in a breakthrough manner to expedite their practical implementation. Specifically, Dr. Langer is responsible for two major innovations drawn from the principles of chemical engineering and materials science.

His first innovation lies in creating and establishing the scientific field of tissue engineering. Dr. Langer became the first person to propose the idea of “scaffolding,” which now serves as an essential component of regenerative medicine. The central element involves biodegradable materials that are absorbed by tissues as the cells become organized. Dr. Langer constructed the cell scaffold of biodegradable polylactic acid that has been used to successfully grow bone, liver, and muscle tissue in laboratory development. He has also succeeded in engineering human tissue, which prompted research into the development of new therapeutic methods, such as the repair of damaged or injured tissues and organs.

His second major innovation involves refining drug delivery system (DDS) technologies for proteins, and applying these technologies to medical therapies. Dr. Langer developed the world’s first stable and long-lasting controlled-release technology that keeps proteins physiologically active. This technology has helped to advance DDS research on macromolecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, opening new applications for regenerative medicine. Numerous medical technologies and pharmaceuticals derived from his research are already widely used to treat patients, including the slow–release chemotherapeutic wafer for the residual brain tumor after surgical removal, the drug–eluting stents for angina pectoris, and hormone treatment for prostate cancer. Moreover, he developed controlled-release DDS technology, which controls drug release in response to external stimuli, such as ultrasound waves, or to internal chemical stimuli; and biodegradable polymer formulations designed to allow the controlled release of drugs at targeted sites. Toward a practical application of these researches, he is currently involved in clinical trials of implantable microchips that release drugs via remote control, and targeting nanospheres that contain and deliver anti-cancer drugs, among other concepts.

Dr. Langer is a pioneer of the biomedical engineering field, the foundation of regenerative medicine and DDS, having established interdisciplinary techniques for applying technologies to disease treatment and refining them for broader medical use. His research achievements are represented by an enormous number of academic papers, review articles, and patents.

He has been active as an entrepreneur and a technical advisor to many biotechnology companies. Every year, many researchers from all over the world come and work in his laboratory and return home with outstanding results. These personnel and academic exchanges are accelerating the advance of biomedical engineering technology worldwide.

For these reasons, the Inamori Foundation is pleased to present the 2014 Kyoto Prize in Advanced Technology to Dr. Robert Samuel Langer.

Lecture

Abstract of the Lecture

”The Struggles and Dreams of a Young Chemical Engineer”

I grew up in Albany, New York, U.S.A. and was first attracted to chemistry when I was 11 years old and received a chemistry set. I loved conducting chemical reactions that caused color changes, and making rubber and other materials. In college and graduate school, I majored in chemical engineering. When I graduated, most of my classmates went into the oil industry. But even though the jobs were high paying, I was not excited about that because I wanted a job where I would be able to help people by improving their education or their health. So I applied to colleges to teach and to medical schools to do health related research. However, no one would hire me. Finally, Judah Folkman, a famous surgeon, offered me a job at Boston Children’s Hospital. I ended up being the only engineer doing research in the hospital and I got many ideas about how to apply engineering to medicine. When I finished that job, I applied for faculty positions, but no engineering department would hire me because they felt I wasn’t doing engineering. Finally, I got a job offer at the Nutrition and Food Science department at MIT. However, things went very poorly there in the beginning. Many scientists said that my early discoveries (in the areas of polymer science and how blood vessel growth could be halted) were wrong because they went against conventional wisdom. My first 9 research grants were rejected, and 2 of the most senior faculty told me that I should leave the department and look for another job. But I did not give up and eventually numerous scientists and companies started using my research and eventually I did receive grant support. Today, many of the concepts that we developed have led to products that have improved or saved people’s lives. Throughout my life-with its challenges and setbacks–I’ve developed the philosophy to dream big dreams that can change the world and regardless of the obstacles that stand in your way, to never give up on those dreams.

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Workshop

Workshop

The Frontline of Biomaterial Studies

date
Wednesday, November 12, 2014
palce
Kyoto International Conference Center
Coordinator
Yasuhiko Tabata (Professor, Kyoto University)
Organized by Inamori Foundation
Supported by Kyoto Prefectural Government, Kyoto City Government, NHK
With the cooperation of Japanese Society for Artificial Organs, Japanese Society for Biomaterials, Japanese Society for Immunology, Japanese Society of Molecular Medicine, Japanese Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, The Academy of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Japan, The Japan Society of Drug Delivery System, The Japanese Cancer Association, The Japanese Orthopaedic Association, The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics, The Japanese Society for Wound Healing, The Japanese Society of Inflammation and Regeneration, The Japanese Society for Regenerative Medicine, The Molecular Biology Society of Japan, The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, The Society of Polymer Science, Japan

Program

10:00
Opening Address and Introduction of Laureate Mitsuru Hashida (Professor, Kyoto University)
Morning Session “Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine” Chairperson: Yasuhiko Tabata
Laureate’s Lecture Robert Samuel Langer (the Laureate in Advanced Technology)
“Biomaterials and Biotechnology: From the Discovery of the First Angiogenesis Inhibitors to the Development of Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and the Foundation of Tissue Engineering”
Lecture Yasuhiko Tabata
“Regenerative Medicine from the Viewpoint of Biomaterials Technology: Regenerative Therapy and Regenerative Research”
Lecture Masaya Nakamura (Associate Professor, Keio University)
“Regenerative Medicine for Spinal Cord Injury”
12:30
Intermission
14:00
Afternoon Session “DDS and Drug Therapy” Chairperson: Mitsuru Hashida
Lecture Yoshinobu Takakura (Professor, Kyoto University)
“Optimized Design of Nucleic Acid-Based Nanomedicine”
Lecture Kazunori Kataoka (Professor, the University of Tokyo)
“Smart Targeted Therapy by Self-Assembled Supramolecular Nanosystem”
Lecture Hiroshi Kikuchi (Officer, Eisai Co., Ltd.)
“The Importance of Species Difference in the Development of DDS medicines”
16:00
Closing Address Mitsuru Hashida
PAGETOP