The 2019 Kyoto Prize
Open to the public, the Kyoto Prize Commemorative Lectures are great opportunities to hear up-close what laureates have to say about their exceptional contributions to the progress of science and spiritual betterment of humankind. Expect to be graced with not just what they have studied and achieved, but also their outlook on life, their values, their way of thinking, and other aspects of their individual perspectives. Please consider attending the event.
11 /11 Mon
13:00 - 16:00
Capacity：1,500 persons (FCFS)
Languages：Simultaneous interpretation is provided.
The 2019 Kyoto Prize Kyoto Prize Laureates
Evolution of OLED Display Technology
Abstract of the lecture
My first experience with organic light emitting diode (OLED) took place at the Kodak Research Laboratories. Hired in 1975 as a research chemist, I began my career with an assignment to develop efficient and low-cost solar cells for light to electricity conversion. Specifically, I was asked to look into using organic dyes and pigments as alternative photovoltaic materials to inorganic semiconductors such as silicon. After spending nearly three years on the project, I was still nowhere close to the device performance needed for practical use. Frustrated, I was about to move on to other projects when I saw the light, literally, from a poorly constructed solar cell when it was driven with excessive current. Thus, I found myself with a new project having the opposite focus—converting electricity to light. Little did I know that this discovery would lead to a premier display technology decades later. In 1987, almost a decade after the discovery, I published a paper in Applied Physics Letters (co-authored with Steve Van Slyke) describing the bi-layer structure, material composition, and device performance of an OLED device, referred to as an organic electroluminescent diode in the paper. It turned out that the bi-layer structure held the key to achieving a high electricity to light conversion efficiency. Also known as an organic heterojunction, its utility had first been realized in my prior work on organic solar cells. With the bi-layer structure, charge generation (in solar cells) or recombination (in OLED) is greatly enhanced by confining these processes, via excitons, at its interface. In the OLED case, the efficiency gain is the result of maximizing the radiative recombination at the bi-layer interface while minimizing the non-radiative recombination at the electrodes. This milestone paper ushered in a worldwide effort to develop OLED for display applications. Display technologies have progressed rapidly over the last few decades, advancing from cathode ray tubes to flat-panel displays. Among various flat-panel displays, liquid crystal display has been the leading technology—until the emergence of high-performance OLED displays in recent years. With its numerous attributes, OLED has laid claim to the best display technology ever developed. In this presentation, I will trace the evolution of OLED from its discovery to its commercialization from my personal perspective.
Understanding the Universe and the Things That Live in It Through Astronomical Surveys
Abstract of the lecture
Astronomers have been charting the heavens for thousands of years, recording the positions of stars and planets and estimating their brightnesses. Before our understanding of the physics of astronomical objects, these charts, maps, and catalogs were mostly of religious, navigational, and calendar interest, though the very accurate catalogs of positions recorded by Tycho allowed the geometry of the solar system to be worked out by Kepler, and allowed the orbits to be explained by Newton with his theory of gravitation. Physics had come to astronomy. Today astronomy is all physics and chemistry of astronomical objects (and still quite a lot of wonder, in case “you” wondered). We do research of two sorts, mainly. On the one hand, working on the specific properties of one or a few objects to understand in detail how they work as individuals, or, on the other hand, gathering data and studying whole populations of objects or the physical structure of the whole universe through large surveys. This is the subject which has been the primary emphasis of most of my career and which I will discuss in my lecture. The universe is populated by galaxies, which are made of stars and gas and dust and a collection of weird objects which stars leave behind when they die. These aggregate into groups and clusters, which are the largest coherent structures in the universe. There are typically a hundred billion stars in a galaxy like our own, and the observable universe holds of order a hundred billion galaxies. These numbers are too vast to allow study of each individual object of any kind, and surveys are designed to allow us to study their statistical properties, thus enabling us to extend the study of many representative individuals to the whole population by doing a census of the kinds of objects in the population. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey which I originated and served as Project Scientist for many years obtained such a study of the nearby universe. Light travels at finite speed, so studying a population of very distant (and faint) objects allow us to see what objects in the universe were like in the distant past. Surveys underway now with large telescopes, including the Japanese Subaru Telescope, will enable us to open this history book on the evolution and development of the universe.
Organized by Inamori Foundation
Supported by Kyoto Prefectural Government, Kyoto City Government, Kyoto Prefectural Board of Education, Kyoto City Board of Education, Kyoto Chamber of Commerce and Industry, The Consortium of Universities in Kyoto, The Kyoto Shimbun, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, The Asahi Shimbun, The Mainichi Newspapers, The Sankei Shimbun, The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jiji Press, Kyodo News, NHK, Kyoto Broadcasting System, α-STATION FM KYOTO
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