2019 Kyoto Prize Laureates

Advanced Technology

Materials Science and Engineering

Ching W. Tang

/  Chemist

1947 -

IAS Bank of East Asia Professor, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Professor Emeritus, University of Rochester

Commemorative Lectures

Evolution of OLED Display Technology

2019

11 /11 Mon

13:00 - 16:00

Place:Kyoto International Conference Center

Capacity:1,500 persons (FCFS)

Admission Free

Workshop

Science and Technology of Organic Light-Emitting Diode: Present Status and Future Prospect

2019

11 /13 Wed

13:00 - 17:15

Place:Inamori Center, Kyushu University

Capacity:200 persons (FCFS)

Admission Free

Achievement Digest

Pioneering Contributions to the Birth of High-Efficiency Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Applications

Dr. Tang studied light emission processes in electrically-driven organic materials and invented a new device structure in which two carefully-selected materials were stacked, allowing for high-efficiency light emission at low drive voltages. This pioneering work has led to the practical use of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and their widespread application in displays and lighting.

Citation

In the 1960s, a group of organic materials was discovered to emit light when a high voltage is applied across them. The discovery of this electroluminescence (EL) inspired further research toward the development of organic EL devices, also known as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Nonetheless, the emission efficiency remained low (approximately 0.1%), and the drive voltage required for EL remained high (several tens of volts). These issues hindered any practical application of EL.
In 1987, Dr. Ching W. Tang invented a new EL device structure consisting of a stack of two carefully-selected organic semiconductor layers. He demonstrated that this structure allows an efficient fl ow of electric current and enables efficient light emission from the interface region between the two layers (1), even when the applied voltage is set as low as several volts. This innovation paved the way for the birth of practical OLEDs.
Dr. Tang’s new device structure consists of an aromatic-diamine hole-transport layer, in which the holes carry the current, and an 8-hydroxyquinoline-aluminum (Alq) electron-transport layer, in which electrons carry the current. Dr. Tang set the hole transport layer as thin as 75 nm and the electron transport layer as thin as 60 nm to reduce the electrical resistance of the device. Moreover, the cathode on the Alq layer was made using a magnesium-silver alloy to ensure both efficient electron injection and chemical stability (1). This new structure allowed the device to be driven by a voltage of less than 10 V, and the electrons and holes recombined with each other efficiently, resulting in light emission with efficiency above 1%.
To further increase the emission efficiency of OLEDs and to control the wavelength of the emitted light, Dr. Tang also invented a more advanced device structure in which a part of the Alq layer was doped with highly fluorescent molecules. By optimizing the position of the doped layer and its dopant concentration, he achieved a two-fold increase in the efficiency and spectral control of the emitted light (2). These works promoted the development of new materials and device structures for OLEDs, resulting in drastic improvements in their efficiency and reliability. They have enabled the realization of practical OLEDs and facilitated their widespread use in displays and lighting.
Thus, Dr. Tang paved the way to the birth of OLEDs and their applications by presenting the material design guideline and the basic device structure, which are indispensable to achieve significant improvements in OLED efficiencies. These works are pioneering in the fields of materials science and electronics and have greatly contributed to the society.
For these reasons, the Inamori Foundation is pleased to present the 2019 Kyoto Prize in Advanced Technology to Dr. Ching W. Tang.

References
(1) Tang CW & Van Slyke SA (1987) Organic electroluminescent diodes. Applied Physics Letters 51: 913‒915.
(2) Tang CW et al. (1989) Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films. Journal of Applied Physics 65: 3610‒3616.

Profile

Biography
1947
Born in Hong Kong
1970
B.S. in Chemistry, The University of British Columbia
1975
Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry, Cornell University
1975–1981
Research Scientist, Eastman Kodak Company
1981–1990
Senior Research Scientist, Eastman Kodak Company
1990–1998
Research Associate, Eastman Kodak Company
1998–2003
Senior Research Associate, Eastman Kodak Company
2003–2006
Distinguished Research Fellow, Eastman Kodak Company
2006–2017
Doris Johns Cherry Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rochester
2013–
IAS Bank of East Asia Professor, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
2017–
Professor Emeritus, University of Rochester
Selected Awards and Honors
2001
Carothers Award, Delaware Section of American Chemical Society
2001
Jan Rajchman Prize, Society for Information Display
2004
ACS Award for Team Innovation
2005
Humboldt Research Award
2007
IEEE Daniel E. Noble Award for Emerging Technologies
2011
Wolf Prize in Chemistry
2013
Eduard Rhein Technology Award, The Eduard Rhein Foundation
2014
Nick Holonyak, Jr. Award, The Optical Society
2017
IEEE Jun-ichi Nishizawa Medal
2018
C&C Prize
2018
National Inventors Hall of Fame Inductee
Memberships:
American Physical Society, Hong Kong Academy of Engineering Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, The Hong Kong Academy of Sciences, The Society for Information Display

Profile is at the time of the award.