1986Advanced TechnologyBiotechnology and Medical Technology
Nicole Marthe Le Douarin photo

Nicole Marthe Le Douarin

  • France / August 20, 1930
  • Developmental Biologist
  • Director, Institute of Embryology at C.N.R.S.

Outstanding Contribution to Embryology through the Development of the Technology for Making Chicken/Quail Chimeras

A biologist who invented a new technology to produce quail-chick chimeras from chickens and quails. Thereby, the development of the nervous and immune systems in higher animals was illuminated. She has made significant contributions to the establishment of the method known as "Embryo Manipulation."
*This field then was Field of Biotechnologies (Molecular Genetics, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Cancer Research, Application of Biological Function, etc.).

Profile

Brief Biography

1954
Graduated from University of Paris, Bachelor of Science
1954
Lycee teacher of natural sciences
1960
Research member of C.N.R.S.
1964
Doctor of Science Degree
1965
Lecturer in Faculty of Science at Clermont-Ferrand University
1971
Professor at Nantes University
1975
Director of Institute of Embryology at C.N.R.S.

Selected Awards and Honors

1980
Legion d'Honneur
1982
Admitted to Academy of Sciences, France
1984
Admitted to American Academy of Arts and Sciences

Major Works

1975

Tracing of Cells of the Avian Thymus through Embryonic Life in Interspecific Chimaeras (with F. Jotereau)

1982

The Neural Crest

1985

Mapping of the Early Neural Primordium in Quail-Chick Chimaeras: I. Developmental Relationship between Placodes, Facial Ectoderm and Proscephalon (with G. F. Couly)

1986

Post-natal Development of a Demyelinating Disease in Avian Spinal Cord Chimaeras(with M. Kinutani and M. Coltey)

Citation

Outstanding Contribution to Embryology through the Development of the Technology for Making Chicken/Quail Chimeras

The process of animal development, which involves dramatic changes starting from the simple form of an egg and growing to an elaborate organization, has attracted the attention of biologists for many years. The total understanding of this process, however, has been insurmountably difficult and constitutes one of the most important themes for biology today. One of the difficulties is to find out the very basic facts about how each cell, the basic unit of an organism, behaves in the process of development.

Prof. Le Douarin invented a new technology to produce quail-chick chimaeras from chicken and quail embryos, and devised the quail-chick cell marker system. She was thus successful in elucidating very clearly the migration of various cells from the primordium along specific routes and the course of their development into adult organs mainly in the nervous and immune systems. She established the basis for illuminating at full scale the development of the nervous and immune systems in higher vertebrates, which had not been clearly studied before her introduction of such new technology.

With the success of this new research method Prof. Le Douarin has established a new approach to the study of development at the cellular level, and she has made a significant contribution to the establishment of a new research technology, called embryo manipulation. In so doing, she has opened a new era in developmental research. The study of the development of the nervous and immune systems of animals has been especially needed, because these systems play critical roles in supporting the life of higher animals, including Homo sapiens.

Through her recent studies on the various functional disorders of the nervous system arising in chimaeras with respect to the development of the immune system, she has shown that the use of chimaeric animals presents a completely new viewpoint for investigating human nervous diseases. Her technology and research on developmental biology, which have opened up a bright future for the basic understanding of the causes of serious human diseases, are most worthy of the Kyoto Prize, especially in the “Age of Biology” when other sciences and technologies are learning so much from living organisms.

Lecture

Abstract of the Lecture

THE EXCITING POTENTIALS OF BIOLOGY

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Workshop

Workshop

Searching for How Animals Develop

date
Thursday, November 13, 1986 10:30~17:30
palce
Kyoto International Conference Center

Program

Chairperson Tokindo Okada
Member, Kyoto Prize Screening Committee in Advanced Technology;
Director-General, the National Institute of Basic Biology
14:00
Introductory Remarks Kazuo Inamori
President, The Inamori Foundation
Opening Remarks Hiroo Imura
Vice Chairman, Kyoto Prize Screening Committee in Advanced Technology;
Professor, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University
14:20
Lecture Nicole M. Le Douarin
Laureate in Advanced Technology
15:20
Speech Takeo Mizuno
Professor, Faculty of Science, the University of Tokyo
15:50
Speech Masatoshi Takeichi
Professor, Faculty of Science, Kyoto University
16:20
16:30
Speech Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
Professor, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University
17:00
Speech Setsuya Fujita
Professor, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
17:30
Closing
PAGETOP